Lutar, esconder ou correr: como Tamandua tetradactyla (Mammalia) em cativeiro responde a pistas indiretas de um predador?

Gilson de Souza Ferreira Neto, Regison da Costa Oliveira, Adamo Cardoso Barros, Renato Pereira Ribeiro, Raysa Melul, Fausto Nomura

Resumo


No ambiente natural, os animais são expostos a uma grande quantidade de ameaças a sobrevivência. Considerar a ecologia do medo é importante para estimar o papel ecossistêmico que os predadores desempenham nas comunidades, uma vez que o medo de um predador pode provocar não somente respostas baseadas em densidade (i.e., remoção de indivíduos de uma população), como também respostas comportamentais, que podem resultar em efeitos em cascata. Comportamentos defensivos são relativamente simples de serem avaliados em situação de cativeiro, uma vez que são conspícuos e específicos, dificilmente sendo confundidos com outros comportamentos quando observados. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a habilidade de indivíduos de Tamandua tetradactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) em detectar pistas indiretas de um predador, para avaliação de risco do ambiente. Neste estudo, seis indivíduos de tamanduás-mirim (T. tetradactyla) em cativeiro foram expostos a pistas indiretas (e.g., urina e fezes) de jaguatirica (Leopardus pardalis). No total, cinco machos e uma fêmea de tamanduá foram observados pelo método de animal focal, em um esforço total de 36 horas de observação. Tamanduás-mirins alocados nos recintos com pistas indiretas do predador exibiram maior frequência de comportamentos anti-predatórios e diminuição dos comportamentos de inatividade. A utilização de pistas indiretas é vantajosa para indivíduos de tamanduá-mirim, pois permitem a avaliação de risco de uma determinada mancha do ambiente e elicia comportamentos de evitação, que são menos custosos energeticamente. A porcentagem de comportamentos também é apresentada com e sem as pistas indiretas do predador de T. tetradactyla, na qual pode ser útil para entender a capacidade de resposta de tamanduás-mirins a situações de perigo.

Palavras chave: Ecologia do medo, tamanduá-mirim, jaguatirica, comportamentos anti-predatórios.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29215/pecen.v5i0.1689

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